Abstract 5-fluorouracil as template drug，2-hydroxyethylmetacrylate as backbone monomer，methacrylic acid as functional monomer，ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and 2,2’-azoisobutyronitrile as initiator were used to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer hydrogels，which were characterized with SEM，FT-IR，and DSC. The results indicated that the hydrogel surface was poreless and smooth，and in hydrogels the template drug of 5-fluorouracil interacted with monomers into solid solutions through hydrogen bonds and unreacted monomers no longer existed. Swelling tests of imprinted hydrogels showed that swelling capacity increased with the amount of 5-fluorouracil during synthesis，and swelling ability as well as swelling speed increased with increasing pH in the system. Meanwhile tests of drug loading capacity showed that the imprinted hydrogels both performed better than the non-imprinted one and MIP(functional monomer-template molar ratio 8∶1) performed better than MIP(functional monomer-template molar ratio 4∶1) with loading capacity amounting to 0.0914 mg/g.Tests on drug release behavior of the hydrogels in simulated biological fluids indicated that all the imprinted hydrogels controlled drug release better than the non-imprinting one，and hydrogels with functional monomer-template molar ratio 8∶1 exhibited the best to control the 5-fluorouracil release process. Meanwhile，release media with a high pH was unfavorable to controlled release of the imprinted hydrogel.